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Are copyright holders the bullies of Fandom?
My parents always talk about how I know so much more about computers than they do, which is true, but I really only have a basic knowledge. The technological differences from when they were in school to now are huge. Fandom in their generation is very different from fandom now due to the wonderful thing we have grown so accustomed to: the internet. The only reason why I'm active in any fandom at all is because of the fan sites I came across those many years ago when I was spending my summer reading books and going on the internet at the library. It's through the internet that I know anything Harry Potter-related other than the books. When I learned about the fight between Harry Potter fan site owners and Warner Brothers (known as "PotterWar") through Melissa Anelli's book Harry, A History, I was interested in learning more about it and how copyright holders have affected other fan sites. I found that ever since the productions of fanzines from the Star Trek fandom, there have been clashes between fans and copyright holders. Fanzines have turned into fan sites and the Fandoms have grown, as well as the opportunity to commit copyright infringement. While certain sites have indeed violated copyright laws, how many sites have been removed just because they have a copyrighted name (such as Harry Potter) as its domain name and not because it is in any way harming the production of the copyrighted material?
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In 2001, Warner Brothers obtained the rights to Harry Potter and decided to try to control the fan sites by sending out cease-and-desist letters to the owners. The owners of the majority of these fan sites were teenagers who were intimidated by these letters which were filled with harsh legal jargon. Anelli recounts the stories of Heather Lawver and Claire Field, who were involved with targeted websites as well as Alastair Alexander, who created a website to bring attention to Clair's battle. Anelli quoted Diane Nelson, the senior vice president of Warner Brothers at the time, who told Entertainment Reward magazine, "we've been naive... the studio's letter is an act of mis-communication. We never intended to shut down and Web sites." She also writes that the company didn't yet know how to handle such a large preexisting fan base or even an author who is so involved with how her material is portrayed.
The media tore Warner brothers apart, only seeing the company as a group of heartless people attacking children who just want to gush about their favorite books. A news site called The Register posted an article entitled Warner Brothers bullies girl over Harry Potter site. The title of the article labels Warner brothers as a bully and sets the tone for the article nicely as it goes as far to accuse the company of hypocrisy because, "what we have here is a vast, ugly corporation which makes most of its money from entertaining children, firing out legal letters and bullying those very kids without any thought given to the facts or the receiver." The article Claire Field wins Harry Potter Web site case, also from The Register, was significantly less opinionated. It reported that Warner Brothers realized she wasn't creating her site for any commercial use and was therefore allowed to keep it. Claire's case gave hope to many other fan sites who had also received letters from Warner Brothers.

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FOX and Paramount
From what I have read, Fox Broadcasting Company seems to be the most strict of companies when talking about taking action against fans. I read an article, Fox Wants Buffy Fan Sites Slain, written in 2000 reporting on how Fox had been sending out cease and desist letters to many owners of Buffy the Vampire Slayer fans sites who "just want to talk about their shared passion for vampire slayers." Fans created groups in protest, a blackout was organized, and still these sites ended up being taken down. Some site owners live in fear of receiving a letter forcing them to shut down all of their time and hard work. The article reports that Fox has been at war with the fandoms since 1997, starting with the X-Files fandom, and still takes action. In April 2011, The San Antonio Browncoats, were sent a cease-and-desist letter to prevent a public screening of Buffy The Vampire Slayer and Firefly. Both shows had been off the air for at least eight years. Even if the group obtained a public performance license from Fox, they would still be unable to show Firefly due to guild restrictions.
Star Trek was first confronted by Paramount in 1977 when fanzine publishers Linda Mclaren and Gina martin were sent a cease-and-desist letter. Paramount dropped the case when they found out the fanzine wasn't a professionally published publication. In 1996 Paramount Lock[ed] Phasers on Star Trek Sites when they launched the Official Star Trek site, Continuum, as a way to try to wed out the competition on the web. This however backfired because the people they want to visit their site are the people they are targeting by threatening to shut down the fan sites. Site owner Michael Brown told wired.com, "Paramount is really overreacting, the whole idea of the sites is to promote the franchise." Today, however, Star Trek's Official Website has a page dedicated to different fan sites.

Every case I have found of issues between fan sites and copyright holders, where the site seems to have been faultless, have been 11 years old or older. The accounts I have found of cease-and-desist letters being sent out to fans after 2001 have been to sites truly committing copyright infringement without much of a debate. Fox seems to be the strict company; Paramount, the company to understand over time; and Warner Brothers, the company who quickly realized what it was doing to the fans and apologized for their mistake. The transition from fanzines to the internet was a new experience and became a valuable learning experience for everyone involved. Companies learned how to deal with these new types of fans while fans learned to be more conscientious about what they post on their sites. I don't believe copyright holders are bullies, at least not anymore. The evidence of acceptance is there of the copyright holders compromising with the owners of fan sites and other potentially problematic areas of Fandom.